Major Things You Need to Know About Thyroid Cancer

 


The thyroid gland, commonly known as the thyroid, is an endocrine gland present in the frontal region of the neck, . It secretes three hormones that affect protein synthesis, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, weight and metabolism of the body. For children, it also affects their growth and development. Talking about thyroid gland, this is a kind of cancer that affects the tissues of the thyroid gland. Like other cancers, cells grow abnormally and spread to other parts of the body. This type of thyroid gland do and mostly results in the swelling and formation of a lump in the neck where the thyroid gland is.

Cause and risk factors:

The cause of thyroid cancer remains uncertain to this day. However, scientists have made certain conjectures about its origins and risk factors. Among which:

  1. Gender: Globally, women are more susceptible than men.
  2.  Age: Women between 40-50 and men 60-70 are more likely to contract the disease. Exposure of Radiation: Exposure to high levels of natural or artificial radiation can cause the disease. It may include cases of radiation therapy to areas of the head and neck, such as that of lymphoma.
  3. Hereditary or genetic problems: Genetic predisposition to the disease increases the chance that subsequent generations will develop the disease.
  4. Genetic complications: It may be due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Other complications include Cowden's disease and familial adenomatous polyposis.
  5. Other thyroid disease: Previous cases of thyroid disease, such as thyroiditis, may increase your risk.
  6. Iodine deficiency: Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormones in the body. Iodine deficiency may increase vulnerability to developing cancer.


The thyroid cells grow and multiply rapidly, losing their ability to die. These huge numbers of cells accumulate and form a tumor. They can also spread and invade adjacent tissues and other body parts.


Symptom

Enlargement of lymph nodes of the neck characterize thyroid cancer. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include severe pain in the anterior region of the neck, followed by a change in voice resulting from the involvement of the recurrent nerve of the larynx.

Other indications are hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and swallowing difficulties.


Types of Thyroid Cancer:

Based on the nature of the thyroid tumor cells, researchers have classified thyroid cancer into the following types:

  1. Papillary thyroid cancer: this is the most common type of thyroid cancer, it mainly affects people aged 30 to 50. Follicle cells make up the tumor. It is associated with radiation exposure and categorized as differentiated thyroid cancer.
  2. Follicular cancer: Also a type of differentiated thyroid cancer, it usually affects people over the age of 50. This type of thyroid cancer do arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. It is rarer than papillary thyroid cancer and is hardly associated with radiation exposure.
  3. Anaplastic cancer: It is a rare form of thyroid cancer, which mainly affects people over the age of 60. It originates from follicular cells and is difficult to treat.
  4. Medullary cancer: It arises from the C cells of the thyroid gland. An elevated level of calcitonin in the blood may indicate the presence of this disease at an early stage.


Precaution and prevention:

Since there is no known cure, prevention is paramount. So the precautions include:

Those with a genetic predisposition that predispose them to the disease undergo thyroid surgery to prevent cancer.
Nuclear power plant workers are exposed to high levels of radiation, so they must wear safety clothing that protects them.
Correct intake of iodine in the daily diet for all ages.

Treatment of thyroid cancer involves surgery to remove the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy). Other treatment methods include chemotherapy, radioactive iodine ablation (RAI)

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